Gene, Cell and Tissue

Published by: Kowsar

Telomere and Telomerase: From Discovery to Cancer Treatment

Ebrahim Eskandari-Nasab 1 , Fatemeh Dahmardeh 2 , Alireza Rezaeifar 3 , * and Tayebeh Dahmardeh 4
Authors Information
1 Genetic of Non-Communicable Disease Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR Iran
2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Zabol, Zabol, IR Iran
3 Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, IR Iran
4 Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, IR Iran
Article information
  • Gene, Cell and Tissue: July 01, 2015, 2 (3); e28084
  • Published Online: July 25, 2015
  • Article Type: Review Article
  • Received: March 9, 2015
  • Revised: May 17, 2015
  • Accepted: May 24, 2015
  • DOI: 10.17795/gct28084

To Cite: Eskandari-Nasab E, Dahmardeh F, Rezaeifar A, Dahmardeh T. Telomere and Telomerase: From Discovery to Cancer Treatment, Gene Cell Tissue. 2015 ; 2(3):e28084. doi: 10.17795/gct28084.

Copyright © 2015, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Context
2. Evidence Acquisition
3. Results
4. Conclusions
  • 1. Sekhri K. Telomeres and telomerase: understanding basic structure and potential new therapeutic strategies targeting it in the treatment of cancer. J Postgrad Med. 2014; 60(3): 303-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Moyzis RK, Buckingham JM, Cram LS, Dani M, Deaven LL, Jones MD, et al. A highly conserved repetitive DNA sequence, (TTAGGG)n, present at the telomeres of human chromosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988; 85(18): 6622-6[PubMed]
  • 3. Lingner J, Cech TR. Purification of telomerase from Euplotes aediculatus: requirement of a primer 3' overhang. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996; 93(20): 10712-7[PubMed]
  • 4. Oeseburg H, de Boer RA, van Gilst WH, van der Harst P. Telomere biology in healthy aging and disease. Pflugers Arch. 2010; 459(2): 259-68[DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. Nandakumar J, Cech TR. Finding the end: recruitment of telomerase to telomeres. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2013; 14(2): 69-82[DOI]
  • 6. Baur JA, Zou Y, Shay JW, Wright WE. Telomere position effect in human cells. Science. 2001; 292(5524): 2075-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Hemann MT, Rudolph KL, Strong MA, DePinho RA, Chin L, Greider CW. Telomere dysfunction triggers developmentally regulated germ cell apoptosis. Mol Biol Cell. 2001; 12(7): 2023-30[PubMed]
  • 8. Zhong Z, Shiue L, Kaplan S, de Lange T. A mammalian factor that binds telomeric TTAGGG repeats in vitro. Mol Cell Biol. 1992; 12(11): 4834-43[PubMed]
  • 9. de Lange T. Shelterin: the protein complex that shapes and safeguards human telomeres. Genes Dev. 2005; 19(18): 2100-10[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. Hayflick L, Moorhead PS. The serial cultivation of human diploid cell strains. Exp Cell Res. 1961; 25(3): 585-621[DOI]
  • 11. Levy MZ, Allsopp RC, Futcher AB, Greider CW, Harley CB. Telomere end-replication problem and cell aging. J Mol Biol. 1992; 225(4): 951-60[PubMed]
  • 12. Lingner J, Cooper JP, Cech TR. Telomerase and DNA end replication: no longer a lagging strand problem? Science. 1995; 269(5230): 1533-4[PubMed]
  • 13. Hiyama K. Telomeres and Telomerase in Cancer. 2009; [DOI]
  • 14. Gomez DE, Armando RG, Farina HG, Menna PL, Cerrudo CS, Ghiringhelli PD, et al. Telomere structure and telomerase in health and disease (review). Int J Oncol. 2012; 41(5): 1561-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 15. Chen H, Li Y, Tollefsbol TO. Strategies targeting telomerase inhibition. Mol Biotechnol. 2009; 41(2): 194-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Hashemi M, Amininia S, Ebrahimi M, Hashemi SM, Taheri M, Ghavami S. Association between hTERT polymorphisms and the risk of breast cancer in a sample of Southeast Iranian population. BMC Res Notes. 2014; 7: 895[DOI][PubMed]
  • 17. Meyerson M, Counter CM, Eaton EN, Ellisen LW, Steiner P, Caddle SD, et al. hEST2, the putative human telomerase catalytic subunit gene, is up-regulated in tumor cells and during immortalization. Cell. 1997; 90(4): 785-95[PubMed]
  • 18. Feng J, Funk WD, Wang SS, Weinrich SL, Avilion AA, Chiu CP, et al. The RNA component of human telomerase. Science. 1995; 269(5228): 1236-41[PubMed]
  • 19. Hiyama K, Hirai Y, Kyoizumi S, Akiyama M, Hiyama E, Piatyszek MA, et al. Activation of telomerase in human lymphocytes and hematopoietic progenitor cells. J Immunol. 1995; 155(8): 3711-5[PubMed]
  • 20. Hiyama E, Hiyama K. Telomere and telomerase in stem cells. Br J Cancer. 2007; 96(7): 1020-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 21. Zimmermann S, Voss M, Kaiser S, Kapp U, Waller CF, Martens UM. Lack of telomerase activity in human mesenchymal stem cells. Leukemia. 2003; 17(6): 1146-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 22. Zhao YM, Li JY, Lan JP, Lai XY, Luo Y, Sun J, et al. Cell cycle dependent telomere regulation by telomerase in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008; 369(4): 1114-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 23. Wright WE, Pereira-Smith OM, Shay JW. Reversible cellular senescence: implications for immortalization of normal human diploid fibroblasts. Mol Cell Biol. 1989; 9(7): 3088-92[PubMed]
  • 24. Harley CB. Telomere loss: mitotic clock or genetic time bomb? Mutat Res. 1991; 256(2-6): 271-82[PubMed]
  • 25. Hashemi M, Eskandari-Nasab E, Fazaeli A, Rezaei H, Mashhadi MA, Arbabi F, et al. Bi-directional PCR allele-specific amplification (bi-PASA) for detection of caspase-8 -652 6N ins/del promoter polymorphism (rs3834129) in breast cancer. Gene. 2012; 505(1): 176-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 26. Bryan TM, Englezou A, Dalla-Pozza L, Dunham MA, Reddel RR. Evidence for an alternative mechanism for maintaining telomere length in human tumors and tumor-derived cell lines. Nat Med. 1997; 3(11): 1271-4[PubMed]
  • 27. Eskandari-Nasab E, Hashemi M, Hasani SS, Omrani M, Taheri M, Mashhadi MA. Association between HLA-G 3'UTR 14-bp ins/del polymorphism and susceptibility to breast cancer. Cancer Biomark. 2013; 13(4): 253-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 28. Shay JW, Wright WE. Telomerase activity in human cancer. Curr Opin Oncol. 1996; 8(1): 66-71[PubMed]
  • 29. Hanahan D, Weinberg RA. The Hallmarks of Cancer. Cell. 2000; 100(1): 57-70[DOI]
  • 30. Wright WE, Piatyszek MA, Rainey WE, Byrd W, Shay JW. Telomerase activity in human germline and embryonic tissues and cells. Dev Genet. 1996; 18(2): 173-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 31. Phatak P, Burger AM. Telomerase and its potential for therapeutic intervention. Br J Pharmacol. 2007; 152(7): 1003-11[DOI][PubMed]
  • 32. Koziel JE, Fox MJ, Steding CE, Sprouse AA, Herbert BS. Medical genetics and epigenetics of telomerase. J Cell Mol Med. 2011; 15(3): 457-67[DOI][PubMed]
  • 33. Hasani SS, Hashemi M, Eskandari-Nasab E, Naderi M, Omrani M, Sheybani-Nasab M. A functional polymorphism in the miR-146a gene is associated with the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a preliminary report. Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(1): 219-25[DOI][PubMed]
  • 34. Omrani M, Hashemi M, Eskandari-Nasab E, Hasani SS, Mashhadi MA, Arbabi F, et al. hsa-mir-499 rs3746444 gene polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to breast cancer in an Iranian population. Biomark Med. 2014; 8(2): 259-67[DOI][PubMed]
  • 35. Hashemi M, Fazaeli A, Ghavami S, Eskandari-Nasab E, Arbabi F, Mashhadi MA, et al. Functional polymorphisms of FAS and FASL gene and risk of breast cancer - pilot study of 134 cases. PLoS One. 2013; 8(1)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 36. Jung HM, Phillips BL, Chan EK. miR-375 activates p21 and suppresses telomerase activity by coordinately regulating HPV E6/E7, E6AP, CIP2A, and 14-3-3zeta. Mol Cancer. 2014; 13: 80[DOI][PubMed]
  • 37. Lu Y, Gu J, Jin D, Gao Y, Yuan M. Inhibition of telomerase activity by HDV ribozyme in cancers. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 30: 1[DOI][PubMed]
  • 38. Hayashidani Y, Hiyama E, Murakami Y, Sueda T. Attenuation of telomerase activity by hammerhead ribozymes targeting human telomerase RNA and telomerase reverse transcriptase in pancreatic carcinoma cells. Hiroshima J Med Sci. 2005; 54(1): 21-7[PubMed]
  • 39. Buseman CM, Wright WE, Shay JW. Is telomerase a viable target in cancer? Mutat Res. 2012; 730(1-2): 90-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 40. Saretzki G. Telomerase inhibition as cancer therapy. Cancer Lett. 2003; 194(2): 209-19[DOI]
  • 41. White LK, Wright WE, Shay JW. Telomerase inhibitors. Trends Biotechnol. 2001; 19(3): 114-20[DOI]
  • 42. Liu JP, Chen W, Schwarer AP, Li H. Telomerase in cancer immunotherapy. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010; 1805(1): 35-42[DOI][PubMed]
  • 43. Hsu YH, Lin JJ. Telomere and telomerase as targets for anti-cancer and regeneration therapies. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2005; 26(5): 513-8[PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments